Research on Paranormal Phenomena, Including Association with Spirituality

This site contains scientific articles on parapsychology . The sequence of these articles tells the story of how my thinking on these topics has evolved. The articles that I think are most relevant are marked with an *.

The articles are listed below in the following categories:

Most of the recent articles are provided in html (easy to access), pdf , and Word document (better for printing) formats. Links to other sites that have the article are also provided in some cases.

For those not familiar with the terminology used in psychical research, the term "psi" is used to mean any type of psychic phenomena.

J.E. Kennedy


The Relationship between Spirituality and Psi

*Conclusions about Paranormal Phenomena. (2013), J.E. Kennedy. Published on the internet.
      html    pdf

*Coming to Terms with the Trickster. (2016), J.E. Kennedy. Talk given at the 2016 combined convention of the Parapsychology Association and Society for Scientific Exploration.
      pdf

*Personality and Motivations to Believe, Misbelieve, and Disbelieve in Paranormal Phenomena. (2005), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 69, Pages 263-292.
      html    pdf    doc

*What is the Purpose of Psi? (2004), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 98, Pages 1-27
      html    pdf    doc

The Polarization of Psi Beliefs: Rational, Controlling, Masculine Skepticism versus Interconnected, Spiritual, Feminine Belief. (2003), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 97, Pages 27-42.
      html    pdf    doc

Spirituality and the Capricious, Evasive Nature of Psi. (2006), J.E. Kennedy, for the National Conference on Yoga and Parapsychology, January, 2006, Visakhapatnam, India. [Version of 5/14/2007]
      pdf    doc

The Roles of Religion, Spirituality, and Genetics in Paranormal Beliefs. (2004), J.E. Kennedy, Skeptical Inquirer, Volume 28, Number 2 (March-April), pages 39-42.
      pdf

*The Capricious, Actively Evasive, Unsustainable Nature of Psi: A Summary and Hypotheses. (2003), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 67, Pages 53-74.
      html    pdf    doc

[Letter on capricious psi]. (2004), Joop M. Houtkooper, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 68, Pages 189-191.
    html    pdf    doc

[Response to letter on capricious psi]. (2004), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 68, Pages 191-193.
    html    pdf    doc

Commentary on "Experiments on Distant Intercessory Prayer" in Archives of Internal Medicine. (2002), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 66, Pages 177-182.
      html    pdf

*Do People Guide Psi or Does Psi Guide People? Evidence and Implications from Life and Lab. (2000), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research Volume 94, Pages 130-150.
      html    pdf    doc

*An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Paranormal and Spiritual Experiences on Peoples' Lives and Well-Being. (1995), J.E. Kennedy and H. Kanthamani, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 89, Pages 249-264.
      html    pdf    doc

Association Between Anomalous Experiences and Artistic Creativity and Spirituality. (1995), J.E. Kennedy and H. Kanthamani, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 89, Pages 333-343.
      html    pdf    doc

Psychic and Spiritual Experiences, Health, Well-Being, and Meaning in Life. (1994), J.E. Kennedy, H. Kanthamani, and J. Palmer, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 58, Pages 353-383.
      html    pdf    doc

Information in Life, Consciousness, Quantum Physics, and Paranormal Phenomena. (2011), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 75, Pages 15-43.
      html    pdf

[Book Review of Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century by Edward Kelly, et al.] (2006), J.E. Kennedy Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 70, Pages 373-377.
      html    pdf    doc

Return to:  Top    Home


Properties of Psi that are Problematic for Research

*Can Parapsychology Move Beyond the Controversies of Retrospective Meta-Analysis (2013), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 77, Pages 21-35.
      html    pdf

[Letter on meta-analysis in parapsychology]. (2006), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 70, Pages 410-413.
      html    pdf    doc

A Proposal and Challenge for Proponents and Skeptics of Psi. (2004), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 68, Pages 157-167.
      html    pdf    doc

[Letter on power analysis in parapsychology]. (2003), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 67, Pages 406-408.
      html    pdf    doc

Why is Psi so Elusive? A Review and Proposed Model. (2001), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 65, Pages 219-245.
      html    pdf

*Methods for Investigating Goal-Oriented Psi. (1995), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 59, Pages 47-62.
      html    pdf    doc

Exploring the Limits of Science and Beyond: Research Strategy and Status. (1994), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 58, Pages 59-77.
      pdf    doc

Experimenter Effects in Parapsychological Research. (1976), J.E. Kennedy and Judith L. Taddonio, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 40, Pages 1-33.
      html    pdf    doc

Review of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, 2015, edited by Etzel Cardeña, John Palmer, and David Marcusson-Clavertz. (2016), J.E. Kennedy, Published on the internet.
      pdf

Return to:  Top    Home


Methodological Issues

*Is the Methodological Revolution in Psychology Over or Just Beginning? (2016), J.E. Kennedy, submitted for publication.
      pdf

*Experimenter Fraud: What are Appropriate Methodological Standards? (2016), J.E. Kennedy, submitted for publication.
      pdf

*Can Parapsychology Move Beyond the Controversies of Retrospective Meta-Analysis? (2013), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 77, Pages 21-35.
      html    pdf

Beware of Inferential Errors and Low Power with Bayesian Analyses: Power Analysis is needed for Confirmatory Research (2015), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 79, Pages 53-64.
      html    pdf

Bayesian and Classical Hypothesis Testing: Practical Differences for a Controversial Area of Research (2014), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 78, Pages 170-182.
      pdf

[Letter on methodology for presentiment studies] (2014), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 78, Pages 273-274.
      html    pdf

Methodology for Confirmatory Experiments on Physiological Measures of Precognitive Anticipation (2013), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 77, Pages 237-248.
      pdf

Lessons from the First Two Years of Operating a Study Registry (2015), Caroline Watt and James E. Kennedy, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6. In December 2015 comments were added to the online article to update it with recent developments.
      html    pdf

[Letter on methodology for confirmatory studies] (2013), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 77, Pages 304-306.
      pdf

Critique of Cumming’s “New Statistics” for Psychological Research: A Perspective from Outside Psychology (2016), J.E. Kennedy, Published on the internet.
      html    pdf

Counterintuitive Results for Statistical Tests with High Power (2014), J.E. Kennedy, Published on the internet.
      pdf

Skepticism and Negative Results in Borderline Areas of Science (1981), J.E. Kennedy, Published on the internet.
      html    pdf    doc

Methodological Problems in Free-Response ESP Experiments (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 73, Pages 1-15.
      pdf    doc

More on Methodological Issues in Free-Response Psi Experiments (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 73, Pages 395-401.
      pdf    doc

Learning to Use ESP: Do the Calls Match the Targets or Do the Targets Match the Calls? (1980), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 74, Pages 191-222.
      pdf    doc

Ambiguous Data Result in Ambiguous Conclusions: A Reply to Charles T. Tart (1980), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Volume 74, Pages 349-356.
      html    pdf    doc

A Methodological Note on Psychophysiological Studies in Parapsychology (1978), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 40, Pages 308-310.
      pdf    doc

Experimenter Misconduct in Parapsychology: Analysis Manipulation and Fraud (2014), James E. Kennedy. Published on the internet with permission granted for reproduction per the Copyright Notice at the end of the article.
      html    pdf

Notes on a Case of Scientific Fraud in Parapsycholgy.

[Book Review of Science and Psychic Phenomena: The Fall of the House of Skeptics by Chris Carter] (2012), J.E. Kennedy Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 76, Pages 391-395.
      pdf

Return to:  Top    Home


Parapsychological Experiments

Possible Paranormal Components of Anticipation: Psychophysiological Explorations (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Full paper published on the internet. The abstract was published in Journal of Parapsychology, 1979, Volume 43, Pages 360-363.
      Abstract: pdf    doc         Full Paper: pdf    doc         Technical Appendix: pdf    doc

PK Experiments Using Light as the Stimulus with Rodents, Insects, and a Plant (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Full paper published on the internet. The abstract was published in Journal of Parapsychology, 1979, Volume 43, Pages 358-359
      Abstract: pdf    doc         Full Paper: pdf    doc

Are Psychological Tests Nonintentional Psi Tasks? (1978), J.E. Kennedy and JoMarie Haight, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 42, Pages 33-50.
      pdf    doc

An Attempt to Replicate the "Checker Effect" (1977), J.E. Kennedy, J.T. O'Brien, D. O'Brien, and H. Kanthamani. This abstract was published in Journal of Parapsychology, 1977, Volume 41, Pages 377-378
      pdf

Comparison of Performance on Subsensory and Extrasensory Perception Tasks (1977), JoMarie Haight, Melissa Morrison, and J. E. Kennedy. This abstract was published in the Journal of Parapsychology, 1977, Volume 41, pages 34-35, for a paper presented at the 1977 Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association Conference.
      pdf

Interaction of Certain Personality Variables and Feedback in a Computerized ESP Test (1978), JoMarie Haight, H. Kanthamani, and J. E. Kennedy. This abstract was published in the Journal of Parapsychology, 1978, Volume 42, pages 51-52, for a paper presented at the 1978 Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association Conference.
      pdf

A Study of Spontaneous Experiences Among Unselected High-School Subjects (1978), JoMarie Haight, H. Kanthamani, and J. E. Kennedy. This abstract was published in the Journal of Parapsychology, 1978, Volume 42, pages 67-68, for a paper presented at the 1978 Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association Conference.
      pdf

Return to:  Top    Home


Information Processing in Psi

Redundancy in Psi Information: Implications for the Goal-Oriented Hypothesis and for The Application of Psi (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 43, Pages 290-314.
      pdf    doc

Consistent Missing: A Type of Information-Processing Error in ESP (1979), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 43, Pages 113-128.
      pdf    doc

The Role of Task Complexity in PK: A Review (1978), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 42, Pages 89-122.
      pdf    doc

Information Processing in ESP: A Survey of Forced-Choice Experiments Using Multiple-Aspect Targets (1980), J.E. Kennedy, Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 44, Pages 9-34.
      pdf    doc

Return to:  Top    Home


Related Links

    Parapsychological Articles by Other Authors

    KPU Study Registry for Parapsychological Experiments

    Exceptional Human Experience Network

    Parapsychological Association

    Trickster and The Paranormal

    Articles on Changes in Spirituality and Well-Being

    Integrating Science and Spirituality

Return to:  Top    Home